This disease (TB or TBC), also known as consumption or tisis, is a contagious bacterial infection. It usually attacks the lungs, although it can also attack any part of the body such as kidney, spine, and brain. It is caused by a bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Koch's bacillus, that belongs to the M. tuberculosis complex. This bacteria cause the infectious disease more prevalent in world.
Lyme disease is a multisystemic infectious disease and the most commonly reported tick-borne infection in the United States. It is also endemic in Europe and some areas of Asia. It is caused by bacteria of the Borrelia burgdorferi species complex (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii). The reservoirs for this spirochete are the white-footed mouse and the white-tailed deer. Transmission is accomplished by the bite of infected deer ticks. Contact with the tick usually occurs in areas of brush and tall grass. Lyme disease can affect different body systems, such as the nervous system, joints, skin, and heart.
Leptospirosis is considered the most globally widespread zoonotic illness, caused by the pathogenic spirochete of the genus Leptospira. The most consistent pathologic finding in leptospirosis is vasculitis, manifested by endothelial edema, necrosis and lymphocytic infiltration. Wildlife and domestic animals can serve as reservoirs for multiple pathogenic serovars.
This infection, also known simply as typhoid, is a common worldwide bacterial disease. It is transmitted by the ingestion of food or water contaminated with the feces of an infected person, which contain the bacterium Salmonella typhi. This infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, causing 21 million of sick people and 200,000 deaths annually.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochetal bacteria Treponema pallidum. Syphilis can present itself in one of four different stages: primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary. It may also be transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy or at birth resulting in congenital syphilis. It has been referred to as the "great imitator of skin diseases" due to its varied presentations. It often does not cause any symptoms in its early stages, but if left untreated, it can progress to affect the entire body.
This disease is caused by dengue virus and transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. There are four known distinct serotypes (DEN1, DEN2, DEN3 and DEN4) that cause the same illness with diverse manifestations. It has a big incidence in tropical and sub-tropical areas. There is a potential life-threatening variety which causes fluid loss, bledding and severe organ damage that can trigger death. This variety is dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue sock syndrome (DHF/DSS). It is especially important the diagnosis of acute, primary and secundary infections.
West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic arbovirus belonging to the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. It causes West Nile fever that produces encephalitis both in humans and equines. The main mode of WNV transmission is via various species of mosquitoes which are the prime vector, with birds being the most commonly infected animal and serving as the primer reservoir. The transmission methods are through blood transfusion, organ transplant, intrauterine exposure, and breast feeding.
Biomarkers for humans: E.
Biomarkers for animals: E.
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) is a widespread human pathogen. Two types of HSV are serologically distinguishable: HSV-1 and HSV-2. HSV-1 is normally associated with oral infections and and HSV-2 is associated with genital infections. HSV-2 is the causative agent of most recurrent genital herpes lesions and is sexually transmitted. Infections are often asymptomatic, and most infected individuals are unaware of the infection, yet HSV-2 is associated with an increased risk of HIV acquisition and an increased risk during pregnancy of spontaneous abortion, premature birth, and perinatal herpes. A variable proportion of genital infection is attributable to HSV-1, and the distinction in virus type is important as genital HSV-1 infections are not as clinically severe and are less prone to recur.
Biomarkers for humans: gG2.
Oral herpes is an infection of the lips, mouth, or gums due to the herpes simplex virus. It causes small, painful blisters commonly called cold sores or fever blisters. Oral herpes is also called herpes labialis. It is a common infection of the mouth area. It is caused by the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1).
Biomarkers for humans: gG1.
he acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is a lentivirus from the retoviridae family with spherical structure that has an envelope and protein capsid. The illness interferes with the immune system making people with AIDS much more likely to get infections, including opportunistic infections that do not affect people with working immune systems.
Biomarkers for humans: p24.
Is a herpes viral genus of the Herpesviruses group: in humans it is commonly known as HCMV or Human Herpesvirus 5 (HHV-5). CMV belongs to the betaherpesviridae family. All herpesviruses share a characteristic ability to remain latent within the body over long periods of time. HCMV infection is more widespread in developing countries and in communities with lower socioeconomic status and represents the most significant viral cause of birth defects in industrialized countries. Transplant patients and immuno-compromised individuals are more sensible to this disease.
Enteroviruses affect millions of people worldwide each year, and are often found in respiratory secretions (e.g., saliva, sputum, or nasal mucus) and stool of infected persons. There are 62 non-polio enteroviruses that can cause disease in humans: 23 Coxsackie A viruses, 6 Coxsackie B viruses, 28 echoviruses and 5 other enteroviruses.
Coxsackieviruses are part of the enterovirus family of viruses that live in the human digestive tract. They can spread from person to person usually on unwashed hands and surfaces contaminated by feces, where they can live for several days. In most cases, coxsackieviruses cause mild flu-like symptoms and go away without treatment. But in some cases, they can lead to more serious infections.
Biomarkers for humans: VP1.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or Human Herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4) is a member of the herpesvirus family and one of the most common human viruses. The virus occurs worldwide, and most people become infected with EBV sometime during their lives. Infants become susceptible to EBV as soon as maternal antibody protection disappears. When infection with EBV occurs during adolescence or young adulthood, it causes infectious mononucleosis 35% to 50% of the time. In humans, EBV is also associated with cancer, in particular Burkitt’s lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Hodgkin’s disease, and immunoblastic lymphoma.
Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by an overgrowth of the fungus Candida, predominantly of Candida albicans. Candida species are ubiquitous fungi that represent the most common fungal pathogens that affect humans. Candida species produce a wide spectrum of diseases, ranging from superficial mucocutaneous disease to invasive illnesses, such as hepatosplenic candidiasis, Candida peritonitis, and systemic candidiasis, when Candida albicans enters the bloodstream and causes serious infection of vital organs. This stage is produced in rare instances, such as transplant patients and immuno-compromised individuals.
Biomarkers for humans: Enolase.
Apicomplexan parasites have evolved a plethora of targeted interactions with their host organisms and cellular machinery to elicit modification of gene expression and cellular functions. Three genera of this phylum represent a triad of phylogenetically related hemoprotozoa: Plasmodium (human and animal malaria), Theileria (theileriosis in livestock), and Babesia (severe disease and death in cattle, horses, dogs, with some zoonotic potential). They are the causative agents of important human and/or animal diseases with high morbidity and mortality, responsible for significant economic burdens and healthcare challenges.
Canine babesiosis is a disease caused for the apicomplexan tick-transmitted hemoprotozoan Babesia canis. Despite its importance, there is no known rapid diagnostic kit detection of B. canis infection in dogs.
Biomarkers for animals: BcMSA1.
Chagas disease is a tropical parasitic disease caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. T. cruzi is commonly transmitted to humans and other mammals by an insect vector. The disease may also be spread through blood transfusion and organ transplantation, ingestion of food contaminated with parasites, and from a mother to her fetus. After 4–8 weeks, individuals with active infections enter the chronic phase of Chagas disease that is asymptomatic for 60–80% of chronically infected individuals through their lifetime. Chagas disease is recognised by WHO as one of the 13 more neglected tropical diseases.
Leishmaniosis is caused by protozoan parasites that belong to the genus Leishmania and the Trypanosomatidae family. This disease, due to its zoonotic nature can affect humans and dogs. it is transmitted by wild animals as asymptomatic reservoirs. This parasite is transmitted by the bite of certain species of sand fly from the genus Phlebotomus and Lutzomya. Leishmaniosis causes different clinical manifestations ranging from self-healing cutaneous lesions (CL), mucosal lesions (MCL) to fatal visceral infections (VL).
Neospora caninum is a mandatory intracellular protozoan inducing abortion, fetal death and neuromuscular disorders in cattle and is a major problem in the dairy and beef industry worldwide. It produces neosporosis, a disease that is emerging as one of the leading causes of abortion in cattle in the United States. In addition, it has been described that it is also a cause of paralysis and death in dogs.
Currently, there is an immunofluorescence test (IFA) for the serodiagnosis of neosporosis made with tachyzoites of N. caninum. The use of complete tachyzoites for immunodiagnostics can lead to false positives due to cross-reactions with Toxoplasma gondii, another protozoan closely related to N. caninum. Other drawbacks associated with the use of complete tachyzoite include the need to grow the parasite in vitro and to have trained personnel for the interpretation of IFA results.
GRA proteins comprise a highly immunogenic group that is excreted / secreted during intracellular development of the parasite. The GRA7 protein of N. caninum is an immunodominant antigen shared by tachyzoites and bradyzoites.
Biomarkers for animals: NcGRA7.
Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide endemic disease caused by the parasitic protozoa Toxoplasma gondii. It infects a broad spectrum of vertebrate hosts, including humans. Toxoplasma gondii infection may cause toxoplasmic encephalitis in immunocompromised patients, blindness, abortion, fetal abnormalities or even prenatal death in congenital cases.