Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacteria Leptospira interrogans. This disease can affect domestic and wild mammals, reptiles, amphibians and humans. The transmission of the disease can be direct or indirect, through contact with urine or tissue of infected animals, or through contaminated water. It is rarely transmitted between people. The symptoms that can occur with this disease range from mild to severe, and even fatal. The most common are similar to other hemorrhagic diseases of viral origin: fever, headache, myalgia, conjunctival infection, jaundice and general malaise. Weil's syndrome, a severe form of leptospirosis, causes jaundice, kidney failure, hemorrhage and myocarditis. Leptospirosis can also cause meningitis and pulmonary hemorrhage. The treatment used to treat this disease are antibiotics, although in more severe cases complementary treatment and even admission to the intensive care unit may be needed. As prevention it is recommended to avoid stagnant water, especially in tropical climates, and even take doxycycline if you are in a high-risk area. The diagnosis of Leptospirosis is very important, especially at the onset of symptoms. In this way, serious cases can be avoided and lives saved, mainly in outbreak situations. It is done by detection of antibodies, PCR, complete blood count, culture and detection of creatine kinase or liver enzymes.
Leptospirosis is distributed throughout the world, mainly in humid tropical and subtropical areas. In hot climates it manifests itself mainly in times of rain and floods. In non-tropical areas, cases of leptospirosis are seasonal, mostly between August and September or February and March. It is one of the most important and most prevalent zoonoses worldwide. Approximately 10 million people are infected with leptospirosis each year. Dogs and rodents represent the main transmitters and reservoirs.
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