Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses possessing large, trimeric spike glycoproteins (S) required for the recognition of host receptors for many coronaviruses as well as the fusion of viral and host cell membranes for viral entry into cells. During viral egress from infected host cells, some coronavirus S proteins are cleaved into S1 and S2 subunits. The S1 subunit is responsible for host-receptor binding while the S2 subunit contains the membrane-fusion machinery. Thus, S1 subunit contains the receptor-binding domain (RBD), located in the C-terminal region. This domain is used as a biomarker for COVID diagnostic.
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